If you are one of them who drives BMW with N43 and/or N53 series petrol engines, the most likely you have experienced rough run, misfires and never-ending stories with injectors, spark plugs and ignition coils replacements.
In our blog, we reveal most popular and well-hidden cause of these problems. We also provide cost-effective and long lasting solution.
We recommend to start with article who describes sentence:
Yes, sometimes spark plugs, ignition coils and injectors are ones to blame. But one tricky cause is hiding, and nobody mentions of it.
To each BMW enthusiast, we offer Online diagnostics for N43/N53 engines.
What does it mean?
When all major problems (including NOx system) are solved.
Most popular reasons for an uneven run. Error 3104: Uneven run / Stratified charge
In this entry: step-by-step recommendations for restoring the performance of the N53 engine.
Available diagnostics tool: ISTA D/+
In this entry: step-by-step recommendations for restoring the performance of the N53 engine.
Available diagnostics tool: INPA for F series. N54 loader 3.700
In this entry: how to act, if the engine has restored Stratified charge; larger problems are eliminated, but the Stratified charge is turned off periodically or the engine sometimes runs unevenly.
BMW has completely reworked the algorithm of maintaining the idle of the MSD87/F series in Homogeneous mode. Also, the information, which is available for these DME, is different (both in INPA and ISTA D/+)...
How to handle the situation, when N43/N53 has started to shiver.
Possibly you noticed some suspicious symptoms, which can suggest that there are some problems with the engine – increased fuel consumption, the engine has become “clumsy”, idle is more unstable, vibrations can be felt while driving. Possibly, you performed the test of Stratified charge…
In this entry: step-by-step diagnostics of, possibly, one of the most complicated engine management system of all times. Each of stages is kept as short as possible, references to previous posts for much more detailed information will regarding each knot/ theme be inserted.
NOXEM 129 | 130
NOx sensors could be (and very often are) the reason, why the engines of N53B30 engine family do not use a Stratified charge. Very often the error messages regarding these sensors are not recorded in the error message memory of DME even in cases of a fundamental damage.
Unfortunately, quite often the diagnostics, performed by “specialists”, is limited by reading the error messages and replacing all components, indicated in the error messages.
Entries relating NOx system – NOx catalytic converter and NOx sensor:
Unfortunately none from available diagnostic programs don’t gives a clear view, in which mode does N43 and N53 performs on current moment AND which modes are allowed. For this reason we have to use several indirect evidences and parameters.
First impression – information, in which mode the engine (N43/N53) operates you can find using INPA. Read more..
Testing of the performance modes of N53B30 for F10/F11 has certain specifics. The reason is the obstacle, that BMW has maximally hidden problems with the performance of the NOx system, locked the access to all typed of basic data which would allow identifying these problems directly or indirectly.
More about basic operating principles of NOx catalytic converter you can read in N53 series engine after-sales training material or in any description of non-BMW engine, which performs in Stratified charge mode.
Here I will pay attention to observations from “real life”, which quite essentially differs from official newsletters. Read more..
The NOx catalytic converter is an expensive spare part (it costs at least EUR 2000). Unfortunately, there are many cars, in which this catalytic converter is damaged already by mileage of 100 .. 120.000 km.
What confirms damage of the NOx catalytic converter? The error message 30E9.
In this entry, I will mention root causes, which have to be blamed in premature damages of the NOx sensor and also different ways to prolong the lifespan of the NOx sensor.
Several readers of my blog have asked: why does the engine of my car don’t runs in Stratified charge?
Of course, if the DME error message memory contains the error messages, which are related to its basic systems, including NOx system – the Stratified charge will not be turned on.
I get more and more questions regarding the topic of NOx catalytic converter. Some askers wont to change the exhaust, removing this catalytic converter; some are interested in the normal performance of the engine is possible without NOx catalytic converter.
More and more I receive requests for help to solve the problems with the engines of their cars after “disprogramming” of the NOx system. Such “disprogramming” is offered by some chip-tuners and also some enthusiasts.
MSD80 records this message, if the mathematically counted parameter of sulfur “poisoning” is significantly higher than the norm, and the regeneration or catalytic converter is not performed/not possible. Causes for such situation could be:..
Error message 30E9 is specific, and it could be registered only in error message memory of MSD80 control unit for N43/N53 engines. Only these engines have NOx system with NOx catalytic converter included in it.
Why the error message 30E9 is registered? Read more…
Problems: increased fuel consumption, uneven running, increased CO/HC (the car is not able to pass TI).
Sometimes I receive e-mails with the following content:
“I installed a used NOx sensor, encoded a new NOx catalytic converter, there are no error messages in DME error message memory…
Few times per second MSD80 sends command or data request to NOx sensor. One hundred times per second NOx sensor “answers” to MSD80: execute required commands or sends measured data.
When fuel consumption grows, most probably, the rough run of engine has also started…
The NOx sensor is comparatively quite expensive spare part, it’s price is around 450 .. 500 EUR, but work-life: very limited.
How to evaluate the performance of NOx sensor?
In this entry – about one quite typical situation, which is characteristic to OEM NOx sensors.
Also, F10/11 till LCI version is equipped with N53B30 series engines.
Depending on power class, they are installed on 523i, 528i, and 530i.
In this entry – in short, and in summary, how the problems of NOx system are hidden in its 2-nd generation (MSD87; F10/11).
This time a good example, how BMW acted after an unsuccessful experience with N43/N53 series engines of E series cars. The N43/N53 engine family of the E series cars was famous with regular error messages regarding all possible systems, especially: regarding the NOx system and uneven performance of the engine.
The connection of NOx sensor to MSD87 is modified – it is significantly different from the solution for E series.
Attention – in this entry you will find information regarding nuances, which have to be taken into account if NOXEM 402 is installed. If your car has an OEM NOx sensor, this error message typically means the damage of the cell of the NOx sensor (it’s clogged).
In this entry – about several very interesting nuances, which are typical exactly for MSD87 (N53B30 engine management system, used in F10/11).
In this entry, I will try to compile the information, which you need to know about the NOx sensors, installed on N53B30 engines of the F series.
Already for a longer time, I’ve noticed one seller from China (autosupply555), who offers as if original NOx sensors (all the time the number of sensors was 10+) for a very affordable price. For a long time, the price was around 280 USD.
In this entry – about quite a specific problem, which is typical only for N43/N53.
Symptoms of the problem: unevenness of the engine, separate misfires, which can appear periodically (interval – several tens of seconds .. several minutes).
At the first moment, you can think – what does the error messages 2A26 and 2A27 to do with the NOx sensor.
Both error messages refer to CO catalytic converters: their insufficient efficiency in Stratified charge mode.
Almost in all entries, if they are somehow related to the repair of the engine, I mention: perform the re-adapting of the engine. If it’s performed using INPA, and the car has an OEM NOx sensor installed, before the re-adapting, the desulphation of the NOx catalytic converter should be performed.
In this entry – more about the service procedures, which refers exactly to the N43/N53 series engines.
If your car has NOXEM installed, you can not continue with reading, because the problems, described below, won’t affect you. But, if the vehicle has an OEM NOx sensor, several important nuances have to be taken in the account.
A little while ago I encountered a unique situation. Anyhow – first for several years and first of several thousand on the N43/N53 engine, which I have inspected.
All information about specific problems of N43/N53
Each quarter the team of Bimmerprofs receives data regarding hundreds of N43/N53 engines. Several tenths of them are inspected on the spot, regarding others, the INPA data and the outline of the situation and problems from their owners are received.
Possibly, it will be the most shocking entry. At least for me. But, as only during this week already three BMW owners had this exact problem, I decided to inform all owners of cars with N43 and N53 series engines.
Thank you to Jan for information and pictures. Some nuances seemed him quite suspicious, when replacing the spark plugs – and not without the reason. But Jan has acted conscientiously – the spark plugs were chosen from recommended in the official catalog – no free thinking or interpretation. What could go wrong?
One of the readers of my blog informed me about his negative experience.
Some time, in eBay, he has purchased “refurbished” injectors for his N53 series engine.
Quite often the call for help includes the following description: “..the injectors were cleaned, then I put them back..”
Not a one time the cleaning of the injectors has been done! How so? Read further!
Why the Piezo injectors were introduced in the internal combustion engines? Because of their prompt reaction! Exactly the prompt reaction allows the petrol engine to work in Stratified charge and BMW Direct Injection diesel engines (making the main injections already at the burning phase of the diesel fuel).
In this entry – why Stratified charge is so important for N43/N53 series engines? Or, more exactly – why for other BMW common rail petrol engines everything is fine without using of Stratified charge?
I checked my notes and concluded that there are already 20 cases noted when unexpectedly ALL injectors started to leak and all had to be replaced. Now it’s the right moment to gather information and make conclusions.
I write this entry because several readers of the blog have asked me: how can I trust the Misfire counters if the cause of them could be a defect of the injector of another cylinder? Yes, it is true – not always the misfires in the current cylinder indicate its defects, so the circumstances, when the misfires are recorded, are very significant.
In this entry, I will tell you a bit more about control of the exhaust gases for these complicated engines – what nuances have to be taken in the account to pass the Technical Inspection and exhaust gas test successfully.
Not without a reason, BMW AG in their instruction how to perform their engine exhaust test highlights the specifics of N43/N53 engines.
As soon I receive some significant information about specific nuances, what would be worth to know for all users of these specific engines, I try to publish it in blog ASAP.
Thank you to everyone, who shares with information – both from me and from other bimmerprofs readers.
The term “leaking injector” is used to describe different defects of injectors. But his time we will talk about the most popular of possible cases – some hard microparticle getting in the nozzle of the injector.
In this entry I will compile recommendations, which have to be taken into the account, buying the car with N series engine.
This issue becomes topical directly in the autumn months. Every year, exactly in autumn, I get quite many e-mails with a description of an identical situation: “I put the engine of my car in order, Stratified charge should be restored, but – the fuel consumption has not reduced!”
How to get N43/N53 to perform as new?
Entering these error codes in Google search engine, the output is 20 .. 30 thousands of entries. And no wonder, because…
There is one more technical failure, made by Siemens engineers. In this time there will be more technical information because the problem itself is technical.
After installing the snubbers, the reported internal temperature of the DME is only around 35 .. 40 oC even in hot summer: significantly lower than before the upgrade.
Today’s patient: E90 with an N53 series engine. Have to admit, that the owner of the car is not particularly demanding to the performance of the car – individual misfires and vibration of the engine did not confuse him.
This entry will be dedicated to the topic:
how important is for all N43/N53 (sub) systems to work perfectly. This time we put the accent on “all systems” because there are no unimportant systems!
Description of the problem:
after starting a cold engine, after approximately 30 .. 40 seconds, it shivers.
The owner of N53B30U0 approached me. The fuel consumption of his car, when the weather got colder (when the day-time temperature in Europe dropped to +2..5 oC), has increased.
It is clear, that the engine with direct injection has problems with carbon residues in the intake manifold because the fuel (as for “usual” engines) does not clean’s it.
In this entry, I will explain the concept of HPFP pressure maintenance.
The HPFP pressure is maintained with a closed-loop system.
In several entries I have mentioned, that very often the HPFP has been replaced unjustifiably. For example, the error message 2FCA; 2FDA indicates the leaking of the injectors, 2AAE and 2AAF, instead – the problems of the low-pressure pump.
I will continue the tradition – I will mention it again, that in at least 90% of cases when the HPFP is diagnosed as the “guilty one”, it is misdiagnosed. These pumps are durable and long-life!
Still, if there comes a moment when it has to be replaced, there are several options.
Several themes will be merged in this post, but it’s necessary, to explain the principles of performance of the engine management system.
Let’s start with several interesting issues regarding coding of injectors.
Management of piezo injectors of N43/N53 series engines is interesting and complicated enough, to pay it a special attention.
Testing of injector signals (do they correspond to normal) have to be done every time…
Bug observed for ISTA+ (ver. 4.10.20), but, it’s very possible, that also other ISTA D and other ISTA+ versions have it.
Does it make sense to replace the injectors after some certain interval? What would be that interval?
I think, that this question is up to date for each car user, who has technical knowledge.
If the cause of the defect is detected – injector(s), the user of the car very often has a dilemma. Dealer and large service centers very often suggest replacing all injectors. Why is that? Is it the best solution?
In this entry about two basic situations:
1. the injector leaks at the moment of diagnostics; 2. the injector has leaked before, but at the moment of diagnostics – everything is fine.
One of the readers of my blog sent me a message, that there is a hidden “feature” – MSD80 turns off the Stratified charge if the oil level is lower than one half of max level.
As already mentioned in other entries, modern engines are performing the measurements of mechanical efficiency in idle. Measurements are done, taking into account short-term speed changes of the flywheel.
While driving (small/medium/large load), for N series engines, the average fuel mixture of each bank is controlled by wide-band probe – average fuel mixture is maintained precisely: according to the value required. But this probe doesn’t see the fuel mixture of each cylinder, which “belongs” to it.
This time – more about the Stratified charge, because data of cylinder-individual correction in Homogeneous mixture mode, unfortunately, are not available. Accordingly – in case of any problems, we have to investigate, how the engine behaves in Stratified charge mode.
MSD80 knows how to measure leaking of injectors and how to identify in idle: how large part of correction (when the evenest performance mode in idle is reached) is due to changes in reaction time of injector (differences from one, defined by manufacturer/encoded on its body) and how large part of correction is due to incorrect/poor injection of fuel…
When the engine uses a Stratified charge, in case of even performance (RPM and required load), MSD80 performs tests of chemical efficiency of injectors, to ensure max even performance of the engine.
The principle of tests is similar as in Homogeneous mode…
At the first moment, you can think – what interesting can there be?
But there is!
I had a free moment, and I decided to check – has the BMW engineers made conclusions since MSD80 (N43/N53) and is there any upgrades and corrections of flaws for MSD87 DME for F series.
INPA used the same loader both for N43 and N53 series engines. Thereby – if the N43 series engine is diagnosed, some questions regarding menu, where the performance of injectors/cylinders is displayed, arise.
Many people are asking – why the misfire algorithm tests for different software releases were performed? Why it is so important?
In this entry – about one of the most expensive hubs of direct injection engines: high-pressure fuel pump.
The structure of HPFP has described in BMW AG after-sales materials, but many nuances are left “behind the scene”. Because of this, there are many misunderstandings and wrong decisions, performing the repair of the car.
In this entry – how the fuel is pumped from “the wrong side” to the side of the fuel pump.
Note: as we know, “normal” BMW is equipped with rear drive, which means – the drive shaft is placed to the rear axle.
DISA is used also in other/previous BMW engines, not only N43/N53, so here we will mention only nuances, which are topical exactly for these engines.
For N series petrol engines, electronic accelerator pedal, and electrical throttle are used. Nothing revolutionary new, so I will pay attention only to some nuances.
When the weather becomes warm, more and more BMW drivers are enjoying driving pleasure, offered by BMW. More and more I receive e-mails – there is suspicion, that the engine doesn’t develop max torque/power. What to do in this situation?
Since long ago, BMW uses engine management systems of both brands – Siemens and Bosch.
What concerns petrol engines (4/6 cylinder versions), initially Jetronic/Motronic solutions from Bosch were used…
Performing diagnostics of several N46/N55 series engines (with Bosch management units), the problem, which perfectly fits in the theme of this entry, became clear.
What to do, when the good idea fails?
Try to fix it, solve it? Yes of course. How does Siemens (the BMW AG partner) succeeded with solving the Rough run problem for MSD80? Very poor.
Never ending story about N52/N53/N54 and family of 4 cylinder N series petrol engines and troubles with even running.. I believe, each owner of car with any engine mentioned has seen names mentioned above in error message descriptions! There is a legend, that the engine of this series running smooth – it’s mission impossible.
As mentioned in previous posts, the MSD80 is much more complicated engine control unit than one before (also MSV70/MSV80), and it makes sense, that such complicated unit has it’s flaws (more about it – read here), and also software updates are required.
MSD80 is a very complicated engine management system. Times, when the engine management system was performing specific, easy to understand algorithms, are gone for good. The engine control units of present moment are specialized, high performance computers, which performs several tenths of tasks at the same time.
Already for a longer while I had an idea to upgrade the software for my N53B30 U0. I was discouraged by thought, that the engine already has chip-tuning performed (for this current version, the benefit could be quite impressive: around + 50 hp, around + 40 Nm – it’s worth it, because the result is almost identical at the most powerful version of engine).
BMW engine diagnostics cases:
The owner of F10, 523i approached me for help. The car can not be driven normally – strong vibration can be felt for the cold and warmed-up engine. The engine does not give full power, strong shivering can be felt.
For F series vehicles, N53 series engines are used in preLCI models in 3 different power versions with model names 523i, 525i and 530i. The most powerful version reaches 205kW/320Nm, ensured full torque in a wide range of RPM: already from 1300 RPM and full power in a range of 6000 .. 7000 RPM.
This time (for now/yet) I have no right to make public VIN of the current car, although it is known to me.
Given: BMW F10, 3.0 diesel engine. Already for a long time in our country.
Today’s patient: F12, 650i with N63 series petrol engine. Beautiful and well-equipped cabriolet, the poshest model of BMW, till the new 8-th series was presented.
The owner of the E series car, equipped with an N53B30 engine, approached me for help. This time the situation is more interesting by fact, that the owner of the car is technically educated – initial information was professional and exact.
However, I decided to make public all information regarding possible illegal BMW, which I was asked to inspect. Unfortunately, there are no options to solve this problem painlessly (for the owner of the car).
A local reseller approached me with a unique car.
F10, quite poor kit (for example, a small screen, no NAVI), but the car is a practically mint condition (at least so claimed the “owner”).
Around one year ago, an owner of BMW F10 approached me with a typical story: the car has mileage ~190.000km, in the DME error message memory – error messages regarding NOx sensor.
Today’s patient – purchased recently, imported from another country. Unfortunately, the attempt to pass the TI was unsuccessful – the exhaust gases don’t correspond to the norm. The car received temporary permission for 1 month.
I have written many times – any modifications in the software of DME will only damage the engine management. I haven’t seen any positive result of “disconnection” of the NOx system, nor “upgrading” (disabling) of the Lambda probes, EGR or DPF (for the diesel engines) or other systems.
In this entry – a bit more technical information regarding problems, which occurs if the control probes are disconnected due to DME config (in case if wideband probes are used as regulating probes).
The car was delivered to the customer from Germany as if in perfect condition, price range: around EUR 10’000. It’s not so little for 10 years old car (taking into account, that the cheapest F10/F11 are also in the same pricing range already).
The owner of BMW X5, E70 approached me. For his car with an N62 engine, the propane gas equipment was installed. After this installation, the range of problems started. After 20’000km the engine was not usable anymore.
This will be a case of an all-time-ever unpleasant experience. Of course, some other case will replace it eventually, but for now – enjoy.
Today’s patient – very unattended E63 with N62 series engine. The current owner has purchased the car without any diagnostics – hoping, that everything will be just fine. Unfortunately, he just barely made it to the service.
If any of the injectors is leaking so much, that DME is not able to maintain the fuel mixture or group misfire starts and a cylinder is switched off – it’s clear: check ../F5/F6 (fuel mixture), identify the bank which has problems. Then the work with 2 or 3 cylinders follows…
In this entry – about an interesting situation, which I have encountered already often enough to make it worth to mention.
Patients: N43 series engines in the simplest configuration: with one wideband probe.
Today’s patient: F07 GT with N55 series petrol engine.
One of the complaints: the engine takes a long time to start (especially after longer stand, cold start).
Several days ago I received a call for help from the owner of N53B30 U0 engine. Car: E90 LCI, 325i. Sometimes a vibration is observed, loss of power by higher RPM. But, judging by the description, nothing tragical.
And then I saw live data…
A while ago I had the honor to diagnose E46. Not a “regular” E46, but Alpina B3 S.
I will mention some nuances, that remained in my memory.
Today, an owner of E71 X6M turned to the workshop.
Several days ago, the owner of the car wanted to purchase injectors. BMW dealer asked EUR 3500 for 8 injectors, which sounded too much.
I decided to mark this one project between several hundreds of successful ones. Mark for several reasons. At first – this was one of the projects of successful cooperation with specialists of one of the local workshops.
The engine had error messages regarding crankshaft sensor and problems with starting.
The owner of the car replaced the sensor with one, manufactured in China – the situation didn’t get better.
This time – one interesting nuance, which I observed in the situation when MSD80 detects a problem with the crankshaft sensor. If MSD detects the inadequacy of signal of the crankshaft sensor or the signal is not identified at all, the DME doesn’t use the crankshaft sensor (till next driving session) and the engine works, using the camshaft sensors.
This was a very interesting diagnostics case.
At first – I didn’t know anything about the current car or its problems. Yes, N54 series engine, so: USA market. Yes, bought recently (judging by license plate), but – no information regarding some specific problems.
As we know, in the UK (and in some other countries), the car movement happens on the “wrong” side of the road. If the owner of the vehicle wants to use the car in countries, where we drive on the right side of the road for the long term, the rebuilding has to be performed.
What can be better than BMW E64 Cabrio 650i?
Excellent car with a powerful N62 engine. With light leather interior, HUD, RDC, and other extras…
This entry is dedicated to all skeptics – is the NOx system truly critical for N43/N53 series engines to pass the TI.
Patient: E90, N53 series engine. Here, the protocol from TI: by increased RPM, CO is 0.5 % (allowed norm: 0.2 %).
This time – about the situation, which becomes “popular” in warm weather. The engine shivers, idle is very unstable, error messages regarding fuel trim (lean mixture) are possible, also misfires appear.
Why exactly in warm weather?
A symptom of the problem: permanent vibration in idle and also driving, decreased power of the engine.
In the same time: without any problems, the engine is able to maintain Stoichiometric mixture, indications (voltage) of control probes – correct.
In N43/N53 series engines, pressure sensors are used to measure, for example, low-pressure and high-pressure of fuel, oil pressure.
This entry is a part of N46 engine repair. I put this problem separately, because this case clearly shows, how important is to perform quality diagnostics. Only after correct diagnostics, the repair can follow.
Today’s case – quite complicated defect. Additionally, the diagnostics had to be done remotely – it’s always more complicated than when all parameters can be inspected in person.
This entry is dedicated to everyone, who thinks, that his car’s diagnostics case is complicated and repair – expensive. I believe you will change your mind after this entry.
It’s very possible, that after several blog entries (here and here), where I described, how important is the registration of battery replacement (and very important – correct registration, not, for example, using tools, made by the third side) and timely replacement of the battery…
To solve problems with huge electricity consumption, for BMW E6X/E8X/E9X and following models “intelligent” alternators are used. They only visually resemble a “simple” alternator!
In this entry – let’s talk about the oil quality sensor, using an example from a diagnostics session.
Patient: E9X, with N47 series diesel engine. When colder weather came (around -5 oC outside), a problem with starting the engine appeared.
This entry is written, because: a) a problem was caused by a non-typical (rare) defect;
b) I think, it’s worth to tell about symptoms, which are characteristic in the case of BSD problems for modern engines.
As for E6X/E8X/E9X “intelligent” alternators which are managed via BSD (Bit Serial Data) interface are used, the simple verdict “charges/don’t charge” is not enough!
This time – about a retro theme. It also has some interesting nuances.
Regarding nuance – there are some tricks, which have to be taken into account, when connecting third – excitation and control output “wire”.
Several months ago a BMW owner, who has a car with an N52B30 engine, contacted with me. The performance of the engine was unsatisfactory – uneven. Irregular performance was observed – unstable idle, and also persistent vibration.
Many have heard about HPFP (high-pressure fuel pump) recalls in the beginnings of N43/N53, also for vehicles, which are in use now, error messages regarding fuel pressure are very often. Unfortunately due to faulty diagnostics, very often HPFP is mistakingly identified as faulty fuel supply element.
This theme applies not only to engines of series N43/N53, but also other petrol engines of BMW, which are equipped with VANOS.
Identification of VANOS Reference position is performed identically by both Siemens and Bosch DME. Immediately after switching on the engine, in first 20 .. 30 turning cycles of camshafts (3 .. 4 seconds)…
Problem: VANOS reference position is close to the “left” border mark. The situation usually doesn’t improve even after replacing the chain or repeated mechanical setup of VANOS and camshaft. Here would be an appropriate place for remark, that such a situation is very common for these engines.
In this entry – about one quite common situation, related to the VANOS. The current problem has quite often seen both for N43/52/53 series engines with MSV/MSD Siemens management system and N42/46 series engines with ME/MEV management system. Also, M series engines are “familiar” with this problem.
The oil pressure for N43/N53 series engines is controlled by oil pressure sensor, which is located after the valve (solenoid). The valve is managed via DME by PWM and defines necessary oil pressure, accordingly to engine temperature, RPM, load.
In simple cases, MSV/MSD engine management units identify damaged Lambda probes, using self-diagnostics, marking the relevant errors. Unfortunately quite often there are no error messages, but still the engine has problems with maintaining the fuel.
The defect, mentioned in this entry, is quite rare. But in my practice are several cases with exactly this defect. It is very hard to identify this current defect…
This post best describes N43/N53 series engines – their complicated engine management, specific nuances in management performance and diagnostics.
The patient: N53B30.
A few months ago during the longer driving session, uneven performance of the engine was observed. Inspection of misfire counters with the ELM327 adapter was detected, that there are increased count or misfires in cylinder No.6.
From one side – nothing special, from the other – a defect, which appeared for the first time in my experience.
One car with N43 engine got lucky – it happened to get to qualified mechanic. It turned out, that valve seals had lost flexibility, exhaust valves were swimming in oil. Oil in large amounts was found also in exhaust.
After engine repair (replacement of valve seals, prophylactic maintenance of engine head, new seals for exhaust).. Read more..
This time the story about the classic of BMW engines.
Yesterday I took the opportunity to join an interesting case: E39 with M54B25 engine and, accordingly, MS43 Siemens control unit.
I/K/P BUS (9600 bps), D BUS (9600/115.000 bps), BSD (Bit-serial Data Interface) (1200 bps), Lin-bus (9600/19200/20000 bps), DWA-bus (9600 bps)…
Today I had the chance to be present in quite interesting case, where several mechanics were not able to find the cause of problem.
This time, quite short entry about management unit of Siemens MS41. In case, if someone will get to work with this DME “grandpa”.
For DME, only 2 Lambda probes are intended. Narrowband. With the supply of 12 V for heating. In the warm-up phase, heating around 20 %, in performance mode: 70 .. 100 %.
People, who want to drive BMW, but at the same time – don’t like to spend a lot of money on fuel, usually choose petrol engines and then install the LPG equipment.
By request of the buyer, I checked BMW E87.
When meeting the seller on an agreed place, a pleasant lady showed the car. The car is small but roomy. The reason for selling – she has to drive a lot, more economical vehicle ie required.
Today I inspected 1-er E87, which was bought only by the photo. The new owner just visited one of the largest car sale platforms, chose the car, which was put for sale (it was from abroad) and…
This entry will be useful to everyone, who plans to purchase a car, even if it’s not BMW.
Please, watch the video, placed below. It’s been made in Russia, accordingly – it’s in Russian. Below you will find my comments and also explanations, what’s so special in this current video.
Entries relating adaptations:
An exact fuel mixture in each cylinder is a critical condition of the engine performance. Only if the fuel mixture exactly corresponds to the required one, the engine will run evenly, its exhaust gasses will correspond the appropriate Euro norms, the fuel consumption will be minimal.
In this entry you will find information about short-term fuel trims and long-term fuel trims. Description applies not only to N43/N53 engines, but to all progressive BMW engines.
It’s already a while after first entry about LTFT and LTFT, I got many questions, which I answered personally. Below is a compilation of frequently asked questions – nuances, which deserve more detailed outline.
Adaptations of the flywheel is basic for all adaptations. Probably, the most important of all adaptations. This article applies to MSD80 (MSV70, MSV80 will be the same), other management systems can have differences.
What does it means – to perform adaptations?
To perform adaptations: to create an initial maps for all management systems (long-term fuel trim map, ignition map, etc.) and coefficients (multipliers for cold engine fuel corrections, etc.).
If the engine performs as intended by the manufacturer, repair specialist doesn’t have to worry, how the adaptations are created. This is the only way, how to understand the total vacuum of information regarding the creation of adaptations for MSD80.
The theory in practice:
At the moment, the actual topic of the users of the original iCOM NEXT – what is the iCOM recall?
In this entry, all available information is compiled.
No matter how “powerful” the testing equipment is, it will not be able to repeat the “real-life” conditions. Usually, the problems persist either in low (below 0 oC) or in high temperatures (above 100 oC). Sometimes the defect is sporadic – it can “disappear” exactly at the moment of testing.
I’m interested in BMW cars for already 25 years, and quite many things are self-evident for me. So I’m very surprised when it turns out – not everything is as I have imagined.
Experience shows that MSD80 (and also related DME of MSV/MSD series) measures the performance of CO catalytic converters in Homogeneous mode driving evenly (with stable RPMs and requested torque).
CO catalytic converters are an expensive spare part, so the question “do they really need to be replaced”, is very significant. Significant enough, to dedicate more time to explore and evaluate the performance of the catalytic converters.
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) is used for “analog” management of different actuators. With “analog” this time I mean: smooth, not on/off type.
Here, how the multi-ignition looks alike.
If DME sees, that there is a problem with the management of the ignition coils, the error messages regarding ignition (2E18..2E1D) are recorded.
Reason for this entry – unfortunately, when I ask the owners of the car to perform a smoke test or to entrust this procedure to the mechanic, mostly I receive the answer: it did not succeed to find the air intake places.
What is Lambda?
Lambda (AFR) is characterizing the relationship of air/fuel ratio. For example…
The oxygen sensors (Lambda probes) perform the control of exhaust gases and are one of the most important parts of petrol engine. The modern BMW engines use 3 or 4 oxygen sensors.
For check up of exhaust gases oxygen sensors are used. Long time ago is was zirconium narrow band Lambda sensors (in the beginning – without heating, after – with additional heating, which allows probes to be ready more quicker and also ensures more accurate data)..
In this entry, I will mention some specific nuances, which have to be taken into account, when replacing Lambda probes (also NOx sensors). True thou, if I will count them before explanation, you will think, that these requirements are not only exaggerated but also non-logical.
In the situation, when we have to replace Lambda probe (hopefully, it’s truly damaged, not some error message, which could be connected with Lambda probe, appears in DME error message memory), quite often (and it’s not wrong) we prefer to spend less money.
The test module of the Lambda probes is present since MsV70 DME generation, it can be found in ../F9 group. Also DME of MSD80 series has this module available, true thou – only for N53 series engines.
This time about nuance, which seems confusing to many. I received several e-mails with questions regarding the situation, described above, so I will try to explain it.
For cheating the control probes, the following techniques are used since long ago: mechanical solutions (“spacers” or tubes) and electronics based solutions (RC circuit).
In many entries, I mention “jittering”. What is it, what damage can it has done – today’s topic.
Jittering is a short-term fluctuation or some parameter – short-term difference from ideal (required/inquired values).
This time about the topic, regarding which I receive many questions:
are the piezo injectors of newer releases compatible with injectors of other (older) releases; hould all injectors be changed, so they release is identical; is it significant, that there should be the newest release of injectors?
In many ways, N43/N53 series engine is a leader of BMW technologies.
It’s control system MSD80/81 can work in several operation modes..
The summer is here, and also overheating problems of the engines also. In this entry – basics of cooling for all most popular BMW engines.
When cold weather comes, lowered temperature of the engine is very common appearance. Due to this, the fuel consumption increases. CO catalytic converters are damaged (due to overheating), other problems are possible. In this entry – about BMW petrol engine problems.
When cold weather comes, countless BMW forums are full of messages regarding problems with electricity supply.
In this entry – about two messages in CCC/CIC…
My car (E60 LCI) has a two-year-old (new) battery, which has been just recently registered in appropriate way, with correct SOC and statistics data. When colder weather came (thermometer dropped down to -10 oC), during several days SOC dropped down to limit of 40 %.
In case of low SOC of battery, strange behavior of the engine is possible: it can become unresponsive.
Reaction to pressing the accelerator pedal is reduced for several seconds, but slowly (during these several seconds) the engine maintains full torque (of course, if the DSC/DTC system don’t limit it).
In several entries, the term “closed loop system” is mentioned. Now it’s time to explain bit more about this notion.
Sometimes we hear – while performing the diagnostics, you say – here, there is a problem on the exact hub. But no error messages regarding it appear! Can I believe such diagnostics?
There are a lot of different opinions regarding coding and registering the change of the battery, but it’s impossible to find exact and correct information.
In my work, I use only tools, created by professionals of BMW AG – for now, they are the most powerful of available ones. In addition – very accessible.
As the comprehension, why the battery should be registered, is poor between BMW users and even service centers, very often this procedure is simply skipped. The battery is replaced, and that’s it. Just sit and drive.
The proportion of vehicles with unregistered batteries – more than half!
BMW AG in after-sales material mention, that thermal management of N series is directed by DME.
There are several work modes.
In the first part of the entry of Thermal management I already mentioned, that the cooling system of modern N series engines has following (powerful) tools…
Actually, this topic is much wider – it doesn’t correspond to N63 series engines only.
N63 series engine is chosen because on the Internet you can find an infinite amount of entries regarding these engines, that they tend to overheat, it is impossible to aerate them and fill the cooling system.
Several days ago, one of my friends asked me to check, what happened with the AC of his car. AC didn’t work, IHKA blew quite warm air, independently of temperature set (obviously – the compressor don’t work).
Practically all modern engines are equipped with EGR. N43/N53 series engines are not exceptional.
As we know, the EGR valve allows returning part of the waste gases in the inlet manifold for repeated burning.
Today in my experience I “met” a car: E90, N43 series engine. It was not possible to start the engine. The starter was turning, live data of injectors indicated, that the fuel is injected, Rail pressure: 100 Bar, but – the engine didn’t want to start.
About today’s topic, I have received quite many questions.
Uneven performance of the engine – can the air mass meter be one to blame? Does it have to be cleaned?
Problem – increased fuel consumption – is quite common. In this entry I will try to gather all possible reasons, special accent putting on possible defects of petrol engines.
At first, we have to distinguish between two fundamentally different scenarios…
I believe many of you have heard, that you have to be very careful from the situation if the piezo injector stucks in opened position – the engine can be irreversibly damaged. Fuel, leaked in the combustion chamber…
In this entry – a little about CO catalytic converters and exhaust gases.
Typical content of perfectly performing petrol engine…
The exhaust systems of N43/N53 series engines are equipped with 2 or 4 catalytic converters:
1 or 2 CO catalytic converters (1 piece for N43 series engines, 2 pieces for N53 series engines) and
In case, someone decides to register the injectors… Or – if the engine has unexplained problems with long-term trims (they last very long, are not able to be finished; the engine has permanent vibration even with completed long-term trims etc.; MSD80 has no error message records).
Vehicle self diagnostics is developed to facilitate the finding of defects in vehicle electronics systems. Each module of system continuously controls the sensors, actuators, working ability of different modules, in case of problems the system records error messages and/or modifies the operation algorithm..
When first electronic management units for the engine management were introduced (for example, Jetronic), they were analog, without any possibility of self-diagnostics.
How to interpret misfire counters data.
As the genuine DME developed by BMW, it does not report misfire counters within an EDIABAS system. Obviously, it is done to maximize the burden of the specialists of BMW service centers with the performance of the diagnostics.
Several times I encountered information, reported by BMW users: the shivering of the engine (also in idle, when it’s easier for DME to detect the misfires) can be felt, but misfire counters are 0. We have to keep in mind several nuances…
This entry is dedicated to the topic – how to work with Rough run data, how this information can help us in our work.
True though, harsh reality will introduce its corrections. I planned to describe both ISTA and INPA, but…
In this entry – basic information regarding Rough run menu and Cylinder selective test unit of MSD87.
To view data, an MSD87 Loader 3.700 was used. If you use another Loader, the data difference is possible.
MSD85 DME was used for management of N63 engines and is common in models F01, F02, F03, F07, F12, and F13.
Valvetronic is, most probably, the most hated hub of the BMW engine. In the same time, it’s “last hope” of the engine repair specialists – if they are not able to find the cause of the problem, most probably, Valvetronic will be the one to blame.
Every repair of Valvetronic is time-consuming and expensive, so the question – what symptoms are characteristic exactly to the defects of Valvetronic – is very important.
Sometimes we hear allegation – what can be changed in an internal combustion engine for several tenths of years? Everything is the same!
Actually, there are a lot of changes.
And finally – one more argument, which doesn’t talk in favor of HVA.
In this entry we will look at possible defects of Valvetronic components due to wear, and what effects these defects have on the valve lift.
We assume, that BMW AG has manufactured perfect details, and they are damaged exactly due to wear.
To make it easier to recognize the defects, I made a diagram – Valvetronic, Generation 2.
The speed of wear marks details, more subject to wear. Accordingly – if the signs of wear cannot be found on details, marked with red (inner circle), there is no reason to believe, that there will be significant wear of details…
In several forums and blogs, I’ve seen a “copy/paste style” recital about the problem, which is characteristic to Valvetronic of Generation 1.
Today I visited my friends at Bavarian Workshop – a small service center, which specializes in the repair of BMW vehicles. Current patient: E66; 745Li with N62 V8 engine.
The engine had abnormal idle, which normalized, only when Valvetronic was disconnected.
WWW. What Went Wrong:
Quite often I happen to hear – from BMW users, internet forums, even BMW service centers – the N series of BMW engines is a fail. They are not long lasting anymore, they encounter never-ending problems. Quite often such problems can not be solved.
During the last decade, Ctek automatic chargers have become the benchmark of the industry.
I decided to devote 15 minutes to check on the chargers, offered by this company. With thought – I could use a compact battery charger during the winter season.
I believe, my situation is not unique. Many BMW users are facing the problem of a discharged battery. Accordingly – it was logically to conclude: there should be an appropriate charger!
After my entries regarding failing of Ctek and other superintelligent and expensive automatic chargers, quite many readers of my blog have asked me – what to do? What kind of charger to use? Do they have to spend more than EUR 1000 for a professional charger?
This time – let’s see, have the BMW engineers noticed and prevented the main reason, why the ignition coils of N43/N53 and coil management switches of MSD80 management units so often go out of order.
The current owner purchased this car 2 months ago with already existing “unsolvable” problems. So, unfortunately (or luckily) we don’t know anything about the author of this “exclusive” solution.
Patient: E60, 530i.
This time – very unpleasant defect, where the leaking of the injector was only part of the story. But – let’s start exactly with this, because at the beginning it looked, that this is the cause of all troubles.
In one of the internet forums, its member wrote the following post:
“My story: INPA displayed 14.7 .. 14.8 V, without error messages. It seemed suspiciously too much. There was sometimes as shaking in idle (injectors and engine cushions were ok). One day the alternator died…”
My experience with BMW N series engines (MSV/MSD series management units) shows, that at least in 80 .. 90% cases the replacement of the injectors is unjustified.
After such (unnecessary) replacement is two possible scenarios:…
Odometer displays and keeps the record of the mileage of the car. Modifying the odometer – very common in the market if used vehicles. BMW is not an exception.
Not without a reason, experienced servicemen suggest – perform full car maintenance directly after the purchase, don’t rely on information from the previous owner, records in the service book or BMW Online databases. People tend to lie (or “forget” to tell some things), service book and Online records are been faked very often.
One of the readers of my blog turned to me for help – after reading the entry regarding IBS, he started to suspect, that the registration of the battery replacement, performed one year ago, haven’t been correct.
The replacement of the battery he performed by using Carly.
Quite often I face different “solutions” with attempts to prevent problems, caused by NOx system.
There are engines, which are manually left in Homogeneous mode, using activation menu; there are engines, which configuration has been altered using NCS or a similar tool.
Many people are opposing – it’s not possible, that authorized dealer of BMW AG can not detect defects for engine, manufactured by BMW AG!
So, for today I’m going to pretend to be a diagnostics specialist from authorized dealer center.
One of the more common problems – air suction of the intake manifold. Although the problem is very common, it’s manifestations are different and sometimes they are “hiding”.
The specific of N43/N53 series engine – time by time, they NOx catalytic converter has to be cleaned from sulfur. Even the cleanest petrol contains some amount of sulfur, which precipitates on the walls of the catalytic converter and reduces its performance and damages it.
According to my observations, the error message:
2EE6 cooling fluid sensor, measurement range
Today an interesting diagnostics case appeared. The owner of the car complained, that driving with speed over 70 km/h, sometimes problems with ABS/DSC appear.
In this entry – diagnostic options, available with ISTA D. ISTA D is the main tool of dealer’s service center. Special attention will be paid to compare possibilities of ISTA D with INPA.
Manifestations of defect – uneven running of the engine, misfires.
Checking error message memory, very often you will find error messages regarding fuel trim of bank No.1, CO catalytic converters of bank No.1 and/or trim of Lambda probes…
If the performance of any injector is inappropriate in case of warm engine, it could be easily identifiable, using INPA. For example, using data of cylinder efficiency (../F5/Shift+F6/F3), the amount of correction applied to each cylinder (../F5/Shift+F6/F1), etc.
When the weather gets cold, more and more often problems with the performance of cold engine arise. What to do, if the situation turned out to be more complicated.
Replacement of ignition coils for direct injection engines is very usual operation. It goes without saying – as refilling the window washer fluid. The engine is shaking again? Let’s change ignition coils – and done!
In the century, when humans are planning to go to Mars, it doesn’t seems logical, that BMW was not capable to create stable and safe engine ignition system. While using my test stand for ignition coils, I noticed strange nuances in coil’s performance and decided to research this situation in a real engine.
In my work, I stick to the principle, that the replacement of the component should be reasonable. Accordingly – before performing the replacement, it has to be checked, that the current element/knot is damaged.
Taking in the account, that many readers of my blog have inquired regarding the schematics of the tester of ignition coils, you will find it here.
Petrol engines of N series uses electric water pump. Older ones use pump with 480W power, for newer engines the power of it reaches 700W.
The crankcase ventilation system is used in all nowadays engine. It’s task is to seize the vapours of oil and fuel and drain them to inlet manifold for repeated burning.
Unfortunately the understanding, how exactly this knot works – most often it’s limited with “leveling the pressures”, which is not true. Read more..
For N43/N53 engines, the crankcase ventilation valve is part of the valve cover, which means – in case of the damaged membrane, the valve cover has to be replaced. Price of this spare part is EUR 400 .. 450.
Accordingly, the question “is it possible to replace only the membrane” is very logical.
As I already mentioned in the 1-st part of CCV test – if CCVV don’t close, the oil consumption will be increased.
But even more critical damage – CCVV is not airtight. This time a little more about this exact problem.
This time, the CCV problem has hidden very well, and due to this, this case is very interesting.
Patient: E90, N53B30. Some time ago the injectors were replaced; when the problem didn’t disappear, the NOXEM was installed, the engine was re-adapted.
Has BMW AG developed correct test procedures? Has the N43/N53 series engines learned something?
Performing the diagnostics; programming, encoding, or even simply calibrating the sound equipment (for custom projects), the car has to be supplied by electricity.
E6X/9X generation cars in “Ignition ON” mode can consume current even till 35 .. 40 A…
Here, three as if iCOM NEXT PCB, but – different…
And now it’s time for topical subject – chip tuning. As this blog is dedicated to petrol engines and even till N54/55 BMW manufactured only atmospheric petrol engines, so now – about chip tuning of atmospheric petrol engines.
Possibly, the mileage of the car is the most important parameter, to which the buyer pays attention when he fas found the preferred car.
Below we will compare three different cars, with a different history. Let’s see, how much does the mileage mean.
Very simple task – as relaxation. Not only users of BMW E60, but also owners of other BMW models are complaining, that the windshield washing is not OK.
Even YouTube videos don’t give a clear view, how the windshield should be washed.
You will say – what value can be found in this entry if the topic is a very simple element – regulator of fuel pressure?
I think you find some surprising information!
This time – very simple topic – checking the engine temperature, using hidden menu.
How to open this hidden section, you can find on YouTube, the procedure will not give any problems.
If MSD detects, that the oil supply system is not able to maintain required pressure (it means, the pressure value does not correspond to a required value longer than time X, or PWM value for time Y is not within required values), MSD turns on the emergency oils supply mode.
Quite often we hear, that N series engines (more often regarding 4 cylinder versions) has long starting time. No other claims. The engine has to be started for a relatively long time, then suddenly it starts as if nothing happened.
This sensor is not a “simple” switch. This sensor measures the oil pressure and sends an accurate value to DME.
If you would take a more close look, you will see two tiny opening – they are necessary for the pressure measuring membrane to “sense” the reference/ambient pressure.
This time – about one very interesting nuance of starting the engine.
As already mentioned in previous entries, Cranking can be longer, if, for example…
INPA is an irreplaceable tool for solving complex problems. INPA allows to read huge amount of data, which are not “seen” by other diagnostic tools. INPA ir irreplaceable, for example, in engine diagnostics.
Identification of vehicle and modules. Read more…
Engine diagnostics. Live data.
Engine diagnostics. Activation blocks.
Engine diagnostics. Adaptations. Test blocks.
MSD87 DME was used for F series vehicles with N53/N54 series engines.
For MSD87 diagnostics the Loader Version 3.700 was used.
Fuel mixture, Rough run menus, injectors corrections and tests data.
Till now I was using one of the newest (stable) INPA versions – 5.0.6, which was using 1.001 loader for MSD80 diagnostics.
Today I got 2.023 loader and decided to test it.
As indicated by BMW AG, N54 engines, which are used in E60/E61, E9X, E88, E82, can have incorrect misfire indications (typically for cylinders of first bank).
Time ago, MS43 was very popular control unit of petrol engines. In this entry I will describe some nuances of diagnostics for MS43.
N43/N53/N54 and other direct injection engines uses not “classical” (coil – electromagnetic), but piezoelectric (material, which changes size, if affected by voltage) injectors. Piezoelectric injectors has been chosen because of instant reaction, which allows to execute multi-point (several injection cycles) injection mode.
While ago I began to take an interest regarding cleaning and diagnostics of piezoelectric injectors.Unfortunately then there was no options available – but now situation has changed.
How to encode a new NOx catalytic converter using ISTA D/+
How to encode a new NOx sensor using ISTA D/+
How to activate forced desulphation session of NOx catalytic converter using INPA
How to activate forced desulphation session of NOx catalytic converter using ISTA D/+
clear old adaptations and create new ones.
clear old adaptations and create new ones.
This procedure is intended to restore Stratified charge in cases if the NOx catalytic converter is contaminated, but there is no possibility to perform a real desulfation (cleaning) session and the car has NOXEM installed.
clear old adaptations and create new ones.
How to perform desulfation session of NOx catalytic converter using INPA
How to perform desulfation session of NOx catalytic converter using ISTA D/+
How to clear adaptations of NOx sensor